By Alan Campbell Wares
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Additional info for A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism
The nasal series in Paipai is the same as that in other languages of the Yuman family. Examples: /m/ mi"foot', mafd'y 'onion', çmœ 'to sleep', vamds ' t e n \ p é m 'no', nyœm 'day' ; /η/ ηάχ 'to kill', vanún 'belly', xnàl 'gourd rattle', χάη 'good', mún 'cold' ; /ny/ nyd~ 'sun', nyixami 'husband', sanyé 'pretty', tinHr 'to write', xmäri» 'baby', mány 'to wither'. The voiced laterals in Paipai are so close to each other in pronunciation that they are difficult to distinguish, and were at first thought to be one phoneme.
The voiceless alveolar grooved spirant /s/ occurs initially in smfr 'sinew', sapó 'to know'; medially in naskó· 'girl', maspât 'to extinguish'; finally in yné's 'scorpion', ciwá's 'mosquito'. In cognates it corresponds to both P /s/ (W, Mo /Θ/) and Ρ /§/; cf. hmâ s'áwi (Ρ masáw) 'chicken', maspât (Mo tamaOpác) 'to extinguish', masP (Ρ xamfí) 'star'. The laryngeal spirant /h/ is pronounced with slight friction (but not as much as Ρ /χ/), which is intensified when the spirant is adjacent to another consonant.
High and mid vowels are normally pronounced with an open articulation. Phonotactic patterns indicate that stressed vowels in unextended root forms do not occur initially or finally, but are always preceded by a glottal stop or other consonant. Unstressed vowels may occur without a preceding or following glottal stop, as in uri' 'coals', was'ámi 'doorway'. Examples of Walapai vowel phonemes are : high front /i/ : 'il 'worm', sit 'one' ; mid front /e/: 'él 'louse', hé' 'tail'; low central /a/: 'âw 'grandchild', mât 'earth'; mid back /o/: 'óp 'no', cok 'juniper'; high back /u/:yú' 'eye', /^w/'long'.
A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism by Alan Campbell Wares